International Climate of the Twentieth Century Project (C20C)

Chris Folland (
Jim Kinter (

Description: The 20th century displayed a rich spectrum of climate variations, including El Niņo and the Southern Oscillation (ENSO), monsoon floods and droughts, sub-Saharan drought, substantial variations in the character of the Arctic Oscillation, the North Atlantic Oscillation, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, the North American Dust Bowl, changes in the Antarctic Oscillation etc. These climate variations may be the result of atmospheric (internal) modes or coupled ocean- atmosphere modes or they may be related to anthropogenic forcing functions. The International Climate of the Twentieth Century (C20C) project was conceived to address this question by imposing the observed atmospheric forcing functions of the last century or more on state-of- the-art atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) to determine primarily the extent to which these seasonal to interdecadal variations are reproducible and also to serve as a validation of the AGCMs themselves.

Folland, C., J. Shukla, J. Kinter, and M. Rodwell, 2002: The Climate of the Twentieth Century Project. CLIVAR Exchanges, June 2002, 3 pp. (

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Updated 4/24/03